Introduction to Transformer

A Transformer may be a device that transfers current from one circuit to a different, usually by the principle of mutual induction. During this process, the frequency remains constant whereas the voltage is often increased or decreased consistently with the necessity.

This transfer of electricity occurs with the assistance of two coils. one among which is understood because the primary winding, which is connected to a source of AC. the opposite is understood because of the secondary winding, and it’s connected to an external circuit. This constitutes the essential structure of the transformer and is shown below:


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Working principle of a transformer

The transformer works on the principle of Faraday’s Law of Mutual Induction. This principle states that the speed of change of flux is directly proportional to the induced electromagnetic flux.

Similarly, during a transformer, when an AC flows through one among the coils, it creates a magnetic flux around it, which constantly produces a changing magnetic flux then, when another coil is brought near it, a number of the EMF is additionally induced within the secondary winding also. Since the secondary winding forms a closed-loop system, the EMF produces the present in it also.

These windings are usually made on an iron core to form the magnetic flux stronger, and laminated afterward in order that the flux doesn’t weaken thanks to air, which may be a perfect insulator. But still, some power losses are observed like Eddy Current losses and Hysteresis loss.

Types of transformer

Categorized on the basis of voltage build-up, we primarily classify the transformers into two basic categories:

    1. Step Up Transformer
    2. Step Down Transformer


1. Step Up Transformer: If we increase the number of turns within the secondary winding, such they become greater than the number of turns within the primary winding, the induced voltage is often increased in direct relation. i.e. if the turns within the secondary are ten times the amount of turns within the primary, then the induced voltage also will be ten times then the one within the primary.

2. Step Down Transformer: Similarly, if the amount of turns within the primary winding is quite the amount of turns within the secondary winding, the voltage induced is going to be lesser than the first voltage.

This property of the Transformer is basically useful in transferring electricity, especially over long distances. To avoid power losses, initially, a transformer is employed and at the receiving end, a transformer is employed which builds up the voltage on the specified level. Such sorts of Transformers are referred to as single-phase, two windings voltage transformers.