What can I use a 12v solar panel for
A 12v solar array system is that the most ordinarily used sort of moveable off-grid systems and is employed to power electronic things and devices that also are 12v. Such a system needs a variety of things, like a star charge controller, AN electrical converter, electric battery bank or individual batteries, and star PV panels.
Solar panels area unit classified per their rated power output in Watts. This rating is that the quantity of power the electrical device would be expected to provide in one peak sun hour. completely different|completely different} geographical locations receive different quantities of average peak sun hours per day. In Australia, the figures vary from as low as three in Tasmania to over six in areas of QLD, NT, and WA.
As AN example, in areas of gaseous nebula natural depression in an agency, the yearly average is around five.6. The monthly figures for this space vary from below four.0 in a Gregorian calendar month to on top of six.5 in Dec. this implies that AN 80W electrical device would ideally manufacture around 320W per day in the Gregorian calendar month and around 520W per day in Dec, however, supported the common figure of five.6, it’d manufacture a yearly average of around 450W per day….without taking losses into consideration.
Solar panels are wired asynchronous or in parallel to extend voltage or current severally. The rated terminal voltage of a twelve potential unit electrical device is typically around seventeen.0 Volts, however through the utilization of a regulator, this voltage is reduced to around thirteen to fifteen Volts PRN for battery charging.
Solar panel output is littered with the cell operational temperature. Panels area unit rated at a nominal temperature of twenty-five degrees Celcius. The output of a typical electrical device is expected to vary by two.5% for each five degrees variation in temperature. because the temperature will increase, the output decreases. With this in mind, it’s value noting that, if the panels area unit terribly cool thanks to inclementness, and also the sun bursts through the cloud, it’s potential to exceed the rated output of the panel. Keep this in mind once filler your star regulator.
The purpose of star regulators, or charge controllers as they’re conjointly known as is to manage the present from the star panels to forestall the batteries from overcharging. Overcharging causes gassing and loss of solution leading to harm to the batteries.
A star regulator is employed to sense once the batteries square measure absolutely charged and to prevent, or decrease, the quantity of current flowing to the battery.
Most star regulators conjointly embrace an occasional Voltage Disconnect feature, which is able to turn out the provision to the load if the battery voltage falls below the cut-off voltage. This prevents the battery from permanent harm and reduced anticipation.
A star regulator conjointly prevents the battery from back-feeding into the solar battery in the dead of night and, hence, flattening the battery.
Solar regulators square measure rated by the quantity of current they will receive from the star panels.
See the section below for info on properly size a star regulator.
An electrical converter could be a device that converts the DC power in an exceeding battery to 240V AC electricity. Inverters are available 2 basic output styles, pure undulation and changed undulation (square wave).
Most AC devices can work fine on the changed sinewave electrical converter, however there area unit some exceptions. Devices like optical device printers will be broken once running on changed sinewave power. Motors and power provide typically run hotter and fewer expeditiously, and a few things, like fans, amplifiers, and low-cost fluorescent lights, offer off AN sonic buzz on changed sinewave power. However, changed sinewave inverters build the conversion from DC to AC terribly expeditiously, and that the area unit is comparatively cheap.
Pure undulation inverters give AC power that’s just about just like, and infrequently cleaner than, power from the grid.
Inverters area unit typically rated by the number of AC power they’ll offer unendingly. makers typically additionally give five second and 1/2 hour surge figures. The surge figures offer a plan of what quantity power will be provided by the electrical converter for five seconds ANd 1/2 an hour before the inverter’s overload protection journeys and cut the facility.
Deep Cycle Solar Batteries
Deep cycle batteries that square measure utilized in alternative energy systems square measure designed to be discharged over an extended amount of your time (e.g. one hundred hours) and recharged a whole bunch or thousands of times, in contrast to typical automotive batteries that square measure designed to produce an outsized quantity of current for a brief quantity of your time.
To ensure long battery life, deep cycle batteries shouldn’t be discharged on the far side seventieth of their capability. i.e half-hour capability remaining. Discharging on the far side this level can considerably scale back the lifetime of the batteries.
Deep cycle batteries square measure rated in Ampere Hours (Ah). This rating conjointly includes a discharge rate, typically at twenty or one hundred hours. This rating specifies the quantity} of current in Amps that the battery will offer over the required number of hours.
As AN example, A battery rated at 120Ah at the one hundred-hour rate will offer a complete of 120A over an amount of 100 hours. this might equate to one.2A per hour. because of internal heating at higher discharge rates, the constant battery might offer 110Ah at the 20-hour rate, or 5.5A per hour for twenty hours. In apply, this battery might run a 60W 12VDC TV for over twenty hours before being utterly drained.
There square measure several factors that may have an effect on the performance and lifetime of A battery bank. it’s extremely suggested that you just speak with AN practiced alternative energy system installer or solar array supplier before creating any vital battery purchase.