The Semiconductor Industry :


  • Semiconductor devices like diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits are often found everyplace in our daily lives, in Walkman, televisions, vehicles, laundry machines, and computers. We have submission rely on them and increasingly have agreement expect vanguard operate at humiliating cost.
  • Personal computers handily illustrate this trend. Anyone who wants to replace a three to five-year-obsolete computer finds that the trade-in value of his (or her) computer is surprising low. On the cunning side, one finds that the profundity and take effect of today’s personal computers vastly exceed that of their antique computer and that for nearly the linked attain price, adjusted for inflation.
  • While this economic truth reflects the terrific accumulate of the industry, it is hard to even imagine the same tally going on in any auxiliary industry. For instance, in the automobile industry, no one would even expect a five times faster car in the future five periods larger facility at the related price promote on compared to what was offered five years ago. Nevertheless, behind it comes to personal computers, such expectations are totally viable.
  • The valuable fact which has driven the affluent append of the computer industry is that through industrial skirmish and technological advances one manages to make smaller and smaller transistors. These devices focus on year after year greater than before perform while absorbing less gift and because of their smaller size they can along with being manufactured at a degrade cost per device.

Introduction to Semiconductors


An objective of the lecture :

    1. Define a semiconductor no. of electrons in the outer shell, location when hinting to the periodic table, most commonly used ones etc.
    2. Know the crystal structure of silicon, the cause, and consequences of defects.
    3. Understand intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor behaviour, know how to be alert this behaviour through doping.
    4. Explain thoroughly what depletion regions are and the way they’re shaped.
    5. 1.P-N junction

Give the examples of Conductors and Insulators!


The difference in conductivity


Semiconductor Materials


  • Elemental semiconductors: Ge & Si (column IV of the periodic table) – composed of single species of atoms.
  • Compound semiconductors: Explain totally what depletion regions are and therefore the method they are formed. (combination of two atoms results in binary compounds).
  • There are plus three-element (ternary) compounds (GaAsP) and four-elements (quaternary) compounds such as InGaAsP.

  • The broad variety of electronic and optical properties of these semiconductors provides the device engineer behind suitable adaptableness in the design of electronic and optoelectronic functions.
  • Ge was widely used in the before days of semiconductor press at the forefront for transistors and diode.
  • Si is currently used for the bulk of rectifiers, transistors and integrated circuits.
  • Compounds area unit wide employed in high-speed devices and devices requiring the emission or absorption of sunshine.
  • The electronic and optical properties of semiconductors are strongly affected by impurities, which may be an exaggeration in precisely controlled amounts(e.g. an impurity amassed of one share per million can modify a sample of Si from a poor conductor to a pleasurable conductor of electric current). This process called doping.